said: O my dear Krishna, I wish to know about prakrti [nature], purusa
[the enjoyer], and the field and the knower of the field, and of knowledge
and the object of knowledge.
Personality of Godhead said: This body, O son of Kunti, is called the field,
and one who knows this body is called the knower of the field.
O scion of
Bharata, you should understand that I am also the knower in all bodies,
and to understand this body and its knower is called knowledge. That is
hear My brief description of this field of activity and how it is constituted,
what its changes are, whence it is produced, who that knower of the field
of activities is, and what his influences are.
of the field of activities and of the knower of activities is described
by various sages in various Vedic writings. It is especially presented
in Vedanta-sutra with all reasoning as to cause and effect.
The five great
elements, false ego, intelligence, the unmanifested, the ten senses and
the mind, the five sense objects, desire, hatred, happiness, distress,
the aggregate, the life symptoms, and convictions -- all these are considered,
in summary, to be the field of activities and its interactions.
pridelessness; nonviolence; tolerance; simplicity; approaching a bona fide
spiritual master; cleanliness; steadiness; self-control; renunciation of
the objects of sense gratification; absence of false ego; the perception
of the evil of birth, death, old age and disease; detachment; freedom from
entanglement with children, wife, home and the rest; even-mindedness amid
pleasant and unpleasant events; constant and unalloyed devotion to Me;
aspiring to live in a solitary place; detachment from the general mass
of people; accepting the importance of self-realization; and philosophical
search for the Absolute Truth -- all these I declare to be knowledge, and
besides this whatever there may be is ignorance.
I shall now
explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. Brahman,
the spirit, beginningless and subordinate to Me, lies beyond the cause
and effect of this material world.
are His hands and legs, His eyes, heads and faces, and He has ears everywhere.
In this way the Supersoul exists, pervading everything.
is the original source of all senses, yet He is without senses. He is unattached,
although He is the maintainer of all living beings. He transcends the modes
of nature, and at the same time He is the master of all the modes of material
Truth exists outside and inside of all living beings, the moving and the
nonmoving. Because He is subtle, He is beyond the power of the material
senses to see or to know. Although far, far away, He is also near to all.
Supersoul appears to be divided among all beings, He is never divided.
He is situated as one. Although He is the maintainer of every living entity,
it is to be understood that He devours and develops all.
He is the
source of light in all luminous objects. He is beyond the darkness of matter
and is unmanifested. He is knowledge, He is the object of knowledge, and
He is the goal of knowledge. He is situated in everyone's heart.
Thus the field
of activities [the body], knowledge and the knowable have been summarily
described by Me. Only My devotees can understand this thoroughly and thus
attain to My nature.
and the living entities should be understood to be beginningless. Their
transformations and the modes of matter are products of material nature.
said to be the cause of all material causes and effects, whereas the living
entity is the cause of the various sufferings and enjoyments in this world.
entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three
modes of nature. This is due to his association with that material nature.
Thus he meets with good and evil among various species.
Yet in this
body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme
proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known
as the Supersoul.
One who understands
this philosophy concerning material nature, the living entity and the interaction
of the modes of nature is sure to attain liberation. He will not take birth
here again, regardless of his present position.
the Supersoul within themselves through meditation, others through the
cultivation of knowledge, and still others through working without fruitive
are those who, although not conversant in spiritual knowledge, begin to
worship the Supreme Person upon hearing about Him from others. Because
of their tendency to hear from authorities, they also transcend the path
of birth and death.
O chief of
the Bharatas, know that whatever you see in existence, both the moving
and the nonmoving, is only a combination of the field of activities and
the knower of the field.
One who sees
the Supersoul accompanying the individual soul in all bodies, and who understands
that neither the soul nor the Supersoul within the destructible body is
ever destroyed, actually sees.
One who sees
the Supersoul equally present everywhere, in every living being, does not
degrade himself by his mind. Thus he approaches the transcendental destination.
One who can
see that all activities are performed by the body, which is created of
material nature, and sees that the self does nothing, actually sees.
When a sensible
man ceases to see different identities due to different material bodies
and he sees how beings are expanded everywhere, he attains to the Brahman
the vision of eternity can see that the imperishable soul is transcendental,
eternal, and beyond the modes of nature. Despite contact with the material
body, O Arjuna, the soul neither does anything nor is entangled.
The sky, due
to its subtle nature, does not mix with anything, although it is all-pervading.
Similarly, the soul situated in Brahman vision does not mix with the body,
though situated in that body.
O son of Bharata,
as the sun alone illuminates all this universe, so does the living entity,
one within the body, illuminate the entire body by consciousness.
see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower
of the body, and can also understand the process of liberation from bondage
in material nature, attain to the supreme goal.
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