Harih Aum! AUM, the word, is all this, the whole
universe. A clear explanation of it is as follows: All that is past, present
and future is, indeed, AUM. And whatever else there is, beyond the threefold
division of time-that also is truly AUM.
All this is, indeed, Brahman. This Atman is Brahman.
This same Atman has four quarters.
The first quarter is called Vaisvanara, whose sphere
of activity is the waking state, who is conscious of external objects, who
has seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who is the experiencer of gross
The second quarter is Taijasa, whose sphere of
activity is the dream state, who is conscious of internal objects, who is
endowed with seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who is the experiencer of
That is the state of deep sleep wherein one asleep
neither desires any object nor sees any dream. The third quarter is Prajna,
whose sphere is deep sleep, in whom all experiences become unified, who is,
verily, a mass of consciousness, who is full of bliss and experiences bliss
and who is the door leading to the knowledge of dreaming and
He is the Lord of all. He is the knower of all. He is
the inner controller. He is the source of all; for from him all beings
originate and in him they finally disappear.
Visva is all-pervading, the experiencer of external
objects. Taijasa is the cognizer of internal objects. Prajna is a mass of
consciousness. It is one alone that is thus known in the three
Visva is the cognizer through the right eye; Taijasa
is the cognizer through the mind within; Prajna is the akasa in the heart.
Therefore the one Atman is perceived threefold in the same body.
Visva experiences the gross; Taijasa, the subtle; and
Prajna, the blissful. Know these to be the threefold experience. The gross
object satisfies Visva; the subtle, Taijasa; and the blissful, Prajna. Know
these to be the threefold satisfaction.
The experiencer and the objects of experience
associated with the three states have been described. He who knows these
both does not become attached to objects though enjoying them.
Surely a coming into existence must be predicated of
all positive entities that exist. Prana manifests all inanimate objects. The
Purusha manifests the conscious beings in their manifold forms.
Some of those who contemplate the process of creation
regard it as the manifestation of Godís powers; others imagine creation to
be like dreams and illusions.
Those who are convinced about the reality of
manifested objects ascribe the manifestation solely to Godís will, while
those who speculate about time regard time as the creator of
Some say that the manifestation is or the purpose of
Godís enjoyment, while others attribute it to His division. But it is the
very nature of the effulgent Being. What desire is possible for Him who is
the fulfillment of all desires?
Turiya is not that which is conscious of the inner
(subjective) world, nor that which is conscious of the outer (objective)
world, nor that which is conscious of both, nor that which is a mass of
consciousness. It is not simple consciousness nor is It unconsciousness. It
is unperceived, unrelated, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable and
indescribable. The essence of the Consciousness manifesting as the self in
the three states, It is the cessation of all phenomena; It is all peace, all
bliss and non-dual. This is what is known as the Fourth (Turiya). This is
Atman and this has to be realized.
Turiya, the changeless Ruler, is capable of
destroying all miseries. All other entities being unreal, the non-dual
Turiya alone is known as effulgent and all-pervading.
Visva and Taijasa are conditioned by cause and
effect. Prajna is conditioned by cause alone. Neither cause nor effect
exists in Turiya.
Prajna does not know anything of self or non-self, of
truth or untruth. But Turiya is ever existent and all-seeing.
Non-cognition of duality is common to both Prajna and
Turiya. But Prajna is associated with sleep in the form of cause and this
sleep does not exist in Turiya.
The first two, Visva and Taijasa, are associated with
dreaming and sleep respectively; Prajna, with Sleep bereft of dreams.
Knowers of Brahman see neither sleep nor dreams in Turiya.
Dreaming is the wrong cognition and sleep the
non-cognition, of Reality. When the erroneous knowledge in these two is
destroyed, Turiya is realized.
When the jiva, asleep under the influence of
beginningless maya, is awakened, it then realizes birthless, sleepless and
If the phenomenal universe were real, then certainly
it would disappear. The universe of duality which is cognized is mere
illusion (maya); Non-duality alone is the Supreme Reality.
If anyone imagines illusory ideas such as the
teacher, the taught and the scriptures, then they will disappear. These
ideas are for the purpose of instruction. Duality ceases to exist when
Reality is known.
The same Atman explained before as being endowed with
four quarters is now described from the standpoint of the syllable AUM. AUM,
too, divided into parts, is viewed from the standpoint of letters. The
quarters of Atman are the same as the letters of AUM and the letters are the
same as the quarters. The letters are A, U and M.
Vaisvanara Atman, whose sphere of activity is the
waking state, is A, the first letter of AUM, on account of his
all-pervasiveness or on account of his being the first. He who knows this
obtains all desires and becomes first among the great.
Taijasa Atman, whose sphere of activity is the dream
state, is U, the second letter of AUM, on account of his superiority or
intermediateness. He who knows this attains a superior knowledge, receives
equal treatment from all and finds in his family no one ignorant of
Prajna Atman, whose sphere is deep sleep, is M, the
third letter of AUM, because both are the measure and also because in them
all become one. He who knows this is able to measure all and also
comprehends all within himself.
When it is desired to describe the identity of Visva
and the letter A, the chief ground given is the fact that each is the first
in its respective sphere. Another reason for this identity is the
all-pervasiveness of each.
The clear ground for realizing Taijasa as of the same
nature as the letter U is the common feature of superiority. Another plain
reason for such identity is their being in the middle.
The indisputable reason given for the identity of
Prajna and M is the common feature that both are the measure. The other
reason for such identity is another common feature, namely, that both
represent the state of mergence.
He who knows for certain the similarity of the three
states and the three letters of AUM, based upon their common features, is
worshipped and adored by all beings and also is a great sage.
Through meditation on A the seeker attains Visva;
through meditation on U, Taijasa; and through meditation on M, Prajna.
Meditation on the "soundless" brings no attainment.
The Fourth (Turiya) is without parts and without
relationship; It is the cessation of phenomena; It is all good and non-dual.
This AUM is verily Atman. He who knows this merges his self in Atman-yea, he
who knows this.
AUM should be known quarter by quarter. There is no
doubt that the quarters are the same as the letters. Having understood AUM
quarter by quarter, one should not think of anything else.
The mind should be concentrated on AUM. AUM is the
fearless Brahman. He who is always absorbed in AUM knows no fear
AUM is verily the Lower Brahman. It is also stated to
be the Higher Brahman. AUM is beginningless and unique. There is nothing
outside it. It is unrelated to any effect and is immutable.
AUM is, indeed, the beginning, middle and end of all
things. He who has realized AUM as immutable immediately attains the Supreme
Know AUM to be Isvara, ever present in the hearts of
all. The calm soul, contemplating AUM as all-pervading, does not
One who knows AUM, which is soundless and also
endowed with infinite sounds, which is all good and the negation of duality,
is a real sage and none other.
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